Forensic Genetic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Hypervariable Region III Sequences in Muslims from South India

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Social Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran

2 Anthropological Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre, Bogadi, Mysore, India



The absence of recombination, high rate of mutation, and maternal inheritance of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome makes it a valuable tool in many fields including evolutionary anthropology, genetic genealogy, population history, and forensic science. The mtDNA genome can be separated into two parts: a large coding region and a smaller fragment called the control region or non-coding region that generally referred to as displacement loop (D loop). The mtDNA D-loop region was highly polymorphic and has proven a precious marker in forensic identification. The study aims to examine and suggests polymorphism of the HVRIII region as a power marker along with HVRI and HVRII in forensic investigations. Within the control region of the mtDNA genome, the sequences of hypervariable region III (HVR III) (nucleotide position 438-574) were obtained from 60 unrelated Muslims of Shrirangapattana town, located in Karnataka state of South India. The complete mtDNA control region was amplified and sequenced by the Sanger sequencing method. The study provided the identification of 18 different haplotypes and 17 polymorphic nucleotide positions. The most common haplotype (H.18) was consistent with the Anderson sequence which occurred fourteen times. The distribution of nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions was computed and determined that transitions made up the majority of the variations (58%) in this region. The genetic diversity was estimated at 0.89939 and the random match probability at 0.1155. The power of discrimination was found to be 0.8844 and the rest of the statistical parameters such as the mean of pair-wise differences and nucleotide diversity were established as 2.255932 ± 1.25884 and 0.010071± 0.00623, respectively. Consequently, the discovery of high genetic, haplotype, and nucleotide diversity, and high power of discrimination impart the use of hypervariable region III (HVR III) as an important marker in forensic investigations.


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