A Taxonomic Reassessment of Consolida (Ranunculaceae) Species: Insight from Morphological and Molecular Data

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Biological science, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Medicinal Plants & Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In order to compare the efficiency of morphological traits and molecular markers in distinguishing the Consolida species, molecular analysis using nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-trnF with maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods were done in a total of 34 species and forma representing 28 species of Consolida, 6 species of Aconitella, plus two species of Delphinium and two species of Aconitum as out groups.  Beside phenetic analysis for 20 quantitative morphological traits in 17 species of Consolida in Iran are performed. The molecular analysis, based on successive reweighting by rescaled consistency index, revealed that Maximum parsimony method and Bayesian analysis gave very similar results based on individual and combine data sets. In the combined analysis (chloroplast and nuclear DNA) recovered most parsimonious trees (L= 558 steps, CI=0.695, RI=0.827). The ITS results revealed that Consolida is not monophyletic and the genus Aconitella is clearly nested within Consolida. Our results confirms the decrease of C. paradoxa Bunge to a forma of C. rugulosa also confirmed the decrease of C. kabulica as a variety of C. stokciana. One way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used in phenetic analysis to visualize the species among different traits. Most of the quantitative morphological traits which showed significant differences between populations were deleted. PCA and cluster analysis carried out for morphological traits divided the Consolida species in to two cluster and A. barbata has separated from other species. Aconitella species are located in separate cluster and location of other species are almost similar to molecular results.

Keywords


Aitzetmuller K, Tsevegsuren N, Werner F. 1999. Seed oil fatty acid patterns of Aconitum- Delphinium- Helleborous complex (Ranunculaceae). Plant Syst Evol 213: 37-47.

Baranger A, Aubert G, Arnau G, Laine AL, Deniot G, Potier J, Weinachter C, Lejeune-Henaut I, Lallemand J, Burstin J. 2004. Genetic diversity within Pisum sativum using protein- and PCR-based markers. Theor Appl Genet 108: 1309-1321.

Boissier E. 1841. Voyage botanique dans le midi de l’Espagne, Livraison 16, Vol. 2. Paris: Gide & Cie.

Boissier E. 1867. Flora Orientalis, vol. 1. Basileae: H. Georg.

Constantinidis T, Psaras GK, Kamari G. 2001. Seed morphology in relation to infrageneric classification of Consolida (DC.) Gray (Ranunculaceae). Flora 196: 81-100.

Davis PH. 1965. Consolida (DC.) S.F. Gray. Pp. 119-134 in: Davis PH. (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands, vol. 1, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

De Candolle AP. 1825. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Vol. 2. Paris, Strasbourg, London.

Ertuğrul K, Arslan E, Tugay O. 2010. Characterization of Consolida S.F. Gray (Ranunculaceae) taxa in Turkey by seed storage protein electrophoresis. Turk J Biochem 35: 99-104.

Felsentien J. 1985. Confidence limits n phylogenies. An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783-791.

Gray SF. 1821. A natural arrangement of British plants. vol. 2. London.

Hall TA. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 14: 68-73.

Hasanzadeh F, Kharazian N, Parishani M. 2017. Floristic, Life Form, and Chorological Studies of Saldaran Protected Region,

Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. J Genet Resour 3(2): 113-129.

Hayek A. 1970. Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Balcanicae: Im Verlag von Otto Koeltz, Koenigstein, Taunus, 576 pp.

Hoey BK, Crowe KR, Jones VM, Polans NO. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of Pisum based on morphological characters, and allozyme and RAPD markers. Theor Appl Genet 92: 92-100.

Hong De-Y. 1986. Biosystematic observation on 5 species of Consolida (Ranunculaceae). Acta Bot Sin 28: 1-10.

Huth E. 1895. Monographie der Gattung Delphinium. Bot Jahrb Syst 20: 322-499.

Iranshahr M, Rechinger, f., KH, Riedl H. 1992. Delphinium L. (Ranunculaceae). In: Flora Iranica. No. 171, Rechinger KH (ed.) Akademische Druckund-Verlagsanstalt, Graz, pp. 89-114.

Jabbour F, Renner S. 2012. A phylogeny of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae) shows that Aconitum is nested within Delphinium and that Late Miocene transitions to long life cycles in the Himalayas and Southwest China coincide with bursts in diversification. Mol Phylogenet Evol 62: 928-942

Jabbour F, Renner SS. 2011a. Consolida and Aconitella are an annual clade of Delphinium (Ranunculaceae) that diversified in the Mediterranean basin and the Irano-Turanian region. Taxon 60:1029-1040.

Johansson JT. 1995. A revised chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae.  Pl Syst Evol (suppl.) 9: 253-261

Kemularia-Nathadze L. 1939. Eine neue Ranunculaceen gattung Aconitopsis Kem. Nath Trudy Tbilissk Bot Inst 7: 115-134.

Khalaj Z. 2013. Phylogenetic study of the genus Consolida in Iran. Unpublished MSc thesis, Alzahra University, Tehran [In Farsi].

Koeva TJ. 1992. Comparative karyotype treatment of representatives from tribes Delphinieae of subfam. Delphinioideae, Family Ranunculaceae. Ann Univ Sofia 82: 51-61.

Munz PA. 1967a. A synopsis of African species of Delphinium and Consolida. J Arnold Arbor 48: 30-55.

Munz PA. 1967b. A synopsis of the Asian species of Consolida (Ranunculaceae).

Nevskii SA. 1937. Delphinium L. 79-143 in: Shishkin BK, (ed.), Flora of the U.S.S.R. vol. 7. Moscow, Leningrad: Akademii Nauk SSSR. Translated from Russian.

Nylander JAA. 2004. MrModeltest v2. Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University.

Page DM. 2005. Treeview X: Tree drawing software for Apple Macintosh and Microsoft windows, ver 0.5.0. Available at http://drawin.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rpage/ treeviewx/download.html.

Pakravan M. 2016. Palynological study of the genus Consolida in Iran. Nov Biol Repert 3(2): 177-183.

Posada D, Buckley TR. 2004. Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of akakia information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests. Syst Biol 53: 793-808.

Ro K-E, Keener CS, Mc Pheron BA. 1997. Molecular phylogenetic study of the Ranunculaceae: Utility of the nuclear 26S ribosomal DNA in inferring intrafamilial relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol 8: 117-127.

Simioniuc D, Uptmoor R, Friedt W, Ordon F. 2002. Genetic diversity and relationships among pea cultivars revealed by RAPDs and AFLPs. Plant Breed 121: 429-435.

Sojac J, 1969. Aconitel; la Spach, eine vergessene Gattung der Familie Ranunculaceae. Folia Geobot Phytota (Praha) 4: 447-449.

Soό R. von. 1922. Über die mitteleuropäischen Arten und Formen der Gattung Consolida (DC.) S.F. Gray. Oesterr Bot Z 71: 233-246.

Styrid A & Tan K.  2002. Flora Hellenica. Gantner ARG, Verlag Königstein: Koeltz, pp 21-25.

Swofford DL. 2002. PAUP: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods), versin 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, MA.

Tamura M, 1966. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae VI. Sci Rep S Coll N Coll Osaka Univ 15: 13-35.

Tar’an B, Zhang C, Warkentin T, Tullu A, Vanderberg A. 2005. Genetic diversity among varieties and wild species accessions of pea (Pisum sativum) based on molecular markers, and morphological and physiological characters. Genome 48: 257-272.

Tavassoli A, Pakravan M, Kiarostami K, Poorhabibian R. 2012. Karyotype analysis in some species of Consolida (Ranunculaceae) from Iran. Fedd Repert 123 (4): 257- 263

Trifonova VI. 1990. Comparative biomorphological study of the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genera Consolida (DC.) S.F. Gray and Aconitella Spach. Collect Bot (Barcelona) 19: 97-110.

Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, and Webb DA. 1964. Flora Europaea vol. 1-5: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics in Innis DH. Gelfand JJ. Sninsky et al.  (eds.) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 315-322.

Whitten WM, Williams NH, Chase MW. 2000. Subtribal and generic relationship of Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae) with emphasis on Stanhopeinae: combined molecular evidence. Am J Bot 87:1842-1856.

Yosefzadeh H, Hosseinzadeh Colagar A, Tabari M, Sattarian A, and Assadi M. 2012. Utility of ITS region sequence and structure for molecular identification of Tilia species from Hyrcanian forests, Iran. Plant Syst Evol 298: 947-961.