Assessment of Genetic Variation and Zinc Deficient Tolerance in Spring Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Genotypes in Calcareous Soil with Zinc Deficiency

Document Type : Research Article


1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, P.O. Box 55181-83111, Maragheh, Iran.


Low zinc (Zn) availability and its absorption limit wheat production and quality of yield in calcareous soils. In order to identify Zn deficient stress tolerance in wheat, fifteen spring genotypes (Diyarbakir-81; Gediz-75; Svevo; Zenit; Amanos-97; Fuatbey-2000; Balcali-2000; Ceylan-95; Firat-93; Aydin-93; Ozbek; Artuklu; Akcakale-2000; Aday-19; and Ege-88) were evaluated under two conditions (normal and Zn deficient stress) in 2014-2015 growing season. This research was carried out in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Results of variance analysis showed that zinc-deficient stress had significant effects on plant height (PLH), spike length (SL), peduncle length (PedL), grains number per spike (GNPS), biomass yield (BY), and grain yield (GY). There were significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits, except spike length, BY, and GY. The interaction effects of genotypes and Zn deficient stress conditions were non-significant for all studied traits. The results showed that zinc-deficient stress caused 7.3, 9.5, 8.0, 20.8, 18.6, and 22.1% reduction in PLH, SL, PedL, GNPS, BY and GY, respectively. But had no significant effect on 1000-grain weight and harvest index. Results showed that ‘Gediz-75’ genotype with 0.62 g/plant and 14 grains had the highest GY and GNPS under two different conditions. But, ‘Aday-19’ genotype with 0.36 g/plant and 8.3 grains had the lowest GY and GNPS under two different conditions. The ‘Gediz-75’ genotype showed the highest STI (1.186), GMP (0.610), MP (0.621), and HARM (0.599) Zn stress indices. However, the ‘Aday-19’ genotype showed the lowest STI (0.399), GMP (0.354), MP (0.360), and HARM (0.347) Zn stress indices. With consideration, the correlation between indices and grain yield under zinc-deficient stress and non-stress, these indices (except the TOL, SSI, RDI, YSI, DI, ATI, and SSPI) were identified as the best stress indices for isolation and selection of tolerant genotypes.


Abdoli M, Esfandiari E, Mousavi SB, Sadeghzadeh B. 2014. Effects of foliar application of zinc sulfate at different phenological stages on yield formation and grain zinc content of bread wheat (cv. Kohdasht). Azarian J Agric 1(1): 11-17.
Abdoli M, Esfandiari E, Sadeghzadeh B, Mousavi SB. 2016. Zinc application methods affect agronomy traits and grain micronutrients in bread and durum wheat under zinc-deficient calcareous soil. Yuzuncu Yil University J Agric Sci 26(2): 202-214.
Alloway BJ. 2008. Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition, 3th Eds. International Zinc Association Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
Alloway BJ. 2009. Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans. Environ Geochem Health 31: 537-548.
Amiri FR, Assad MT. 2005. Evaluation of three physiological traits for selecting drought resistant wheat genotypes. J Agric Sci Technol 7: 81-87.
Arif M, Tasneem M, Bashir F, Yaseen G, Anwar A. 2017. Evaluation of different levels of potassium and zinc fertilizer on the growth and yield of wheat. Int J Biosen Bioelectron 3(2): 1-5.
Bouslama M, Schapaugh WT. 1984. Stress tolerance in soybean. I. Evaluation of three screening techniques for heat and drought tolerance. Crop Sci 24: 933-937.
Brown PH, Cakmak I, Zhang Q. 1993. Form and Function of Zinc Plants, In: Robson AD. (ed.): Zinc in Soils and Plants. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 93-106.
Cakmak I, Kutman UB. 2017. Agronomic biofortification of cereals with zinc: a review. Eur J Soil Sci (In Press),
Cakmak I, Pfeiffer WH, McClafferty B. 2010. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification. Cereal Chem 87: 10-20.
Cakmak I, Yilmaz A, Kalayci M, Ekiz H, Torun B, Erenoglu B, Braun HJ. 1996. Zinc deficiency as a critical problem in wheat production in central Anatolia. Plant Soil 180: 165-172.
Cakmak I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil 302: 1-17.
Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11(1): 1-42.
Emam Y. 2011. Cereal Production. Shiraz University Press. 190 p.
Esfandiari E, Abdoli M. 2016. Wheat biofortification through zinc foliar application and its effects on wheat quantitative and qualitative yields under zinc deficient stress. Yuzuncu Yil University J Agric Sci 26(4): 529-537.
Farshadfar E, Zamani M, Matlabi M, Emam-Jome E. 2001. Selection for drought resistance in chickpea lines. Intl J Agri Crop Sci 32(1): 65-77.
Fernandez GCJ. 1992. Effective selection criteria for assessing stress tolerance. In: Kuo CG. (ed.), Proceedings of the international symposium on adaptation of vegetables and other food Crops in temperature and water stress. Public Tainan Taiwan, pp. 257-270.
Fischer RA, Maurer R. 1978. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars: I. Grain yield responses. Aust J Agric Res 29: 897-912.
Fischer RA, Wood JT. 1979. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars: III. Yield association with morpho-physiological traits. Aust J Agric Res 30: 1001-1020.
Genc Y, McDonald GK. 2008. Domesticated emmer wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] as a source for improvement of zinc efficiency in durum wheat. Plant Soil 310: 67-75.
Ghasal PC, Singh Shivay Y, Pooniya V, Choudhary M, Verma RK. 2017. Zinc partitioning in basmati rice varieties as influenced by Zn fertilization. The Crop J (In Press),
Gregorie T. 2007. Canola-High Temperature and Drought. Available at:
Hsiao TC. 1973. Plant responses to water stress. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 24: 519-570.
Kaya C, Higgs D, Burton A. 2000. Phosphorus acid phosphates enzyme activity in leaves in leaves of tomato cultivars in relation to Zn supply. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31: 3239-3248.
Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Razizadeh ES, Eshghizadeh HR, Savaghebi G, Sadrearhami A, Afuni D. 2011.  Screening tolerance of different spring wheat genotypes to zinc deficiency with using different stress indices. J Water Soil 25(2): 287-298.
Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Sadrarhami A, Sharifi HR, Afiuni D, Schulin R. 2009. Selecting zinc-efficient wheat genotypes with high grain yield using a stress tolerance index. Agron J 101(6): 1409-1416.
Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Shariatmadari H, Karimian N, Kalbasi M, Khajehpour MR. 2005. Zinc efficiency of wheat cultivars grown on a saline calcareous soil. J Plant Nutr 27(11): 1953-1962.
Kristin AS, Senra RR, Perez FI, Enriquez BC, Gallegos JAA, Vallego PR, Wassimi N, Kelley JD. 1997. Improving common bean performance under drought stress. Crop Sci 37: 43-50.
Lan J. 1998. Comparison of evaluating methods for agronomic drought resistance in crops. Acta Agr Bor-Occid Sinic 7: 85-87.
Lin CS, Binns MR, Lefkovitch LP. 1986. Stability analysis: Where do we stand?. Crop Sci 26: 894-900.
Lindsay WL, Norvell WA. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 421-428.
Marschner H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd Eds. Cambridge: Academic Press Inc. 890 p.
McCauley A, Jones C, Jacobsen J. 2009. Plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Nutrient Management Module No. 9. Montana State University Extension Service, Bozeman, MT. 16 p.
McDonald GK, Graham RD, Lloyd J, Lewis J, Lonergan P, Khabaz-Saberi H. 2001. Breeding for improved zinc and manganese efficiency in wheat and barley. Paper read at Proceedings of the 10th Australian Agronomy Conference, Hobart, Australia.
Moosavi SS, Yazdi-Samadi B, Naghavi MR, Zali AA, Dashti H, Pourshahbazi A. 2008. Introduction of new indices to identify relative drought tolerance and resistance in wheat genotypes. Desert 12: 165-178.
MSTATC version 2.10. 1989. Michigan State University: East Lansing, MI; MSDOS.
Nadim MA, Awan IU, Baloch MS, Khan EA, Naveed K, Khan MA. 2012. Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to different micronutrients and their application methods. J Anim Plant Sci 22(1): 113-119.
Narimani H, Rahimi MM, Ahmadikhah A, Vaezi B. 2010. Study on the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient on yield and yield components of durum wheat. Arch Appl Sci Res 2(6): 168-176.
Narwal RP, Dahiya RR, Malik RS, Kala R. 2012. Influence of genetic variability on zinc, iron and manganese responses in wheat. J Geochem Explor 121: 45-48.
Pataco IM, Lidon FC, Ramos I, Oliveira K, Guerra M, Pessoa MF, Carvalho ML, Ramalho JC, Leitão AE, Santos JP, Campos PS, Silva MM, Pais IP, Reboredo FH. 2017. Biofortification of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot) grains with nutrients. J Plant Interact 12(1): 39-50.
Pataco IM, Mourinho MP, Oliveira K, Santos C, Pelica J, Ramalho JC, Leitão AE, Scotti-Campos P, Lidon FC, Reboredo FH, Pessoa MF. 2015. Durum wheat (Triticum durum) biofortification in iron and definition of quality parameters for the industrial production of pasta – a review. Emirates J Food Agric 27: 242-249.
Rosielle AA, Hamblin J. 1981. Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non-stress environments. Crop Sci 21(6): 943-946.
Sadeghzadeh B, Rengel Z, Li C, Yang H. 2010. Molecular marker linked to a chromosome region regulating seed Zn accumulation in barley. Mol Breed 25: 167-177.
Sadeghzadeh B, Rengel Z, Li C. 2015. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed Zn accumulation in barley population Clipper × Sahara. J Plant Nutr 38(11): 1672-1684.
Saeidi M, Abdoli M, Shafiei-Abnavi M, Mohammadi M, Eskandari-Ghaleh Z. 2016. Evaluation of genetic diversity of bread and durum wheat genotypes based on agronomy traits and some morphological traits in non-stress and terminal drought stress conditions. Cereal Res 5(4): 353-369.
Saeidi M, Abdoli M. 2015. Effect of drought stress during grain filling on yield and its components, gas exchange variables, and some physiological traits of wheat cultivars. J Agric Sci Technol 17(4): 885-898.
Saeidi M, Moradi F. 2011. Effect of post-anthesis water stress on remobilization of soluble carbohydrates from peduncle and penultimate internodes to the developing grains of two bread wheat cultivars. Iranian J Crop Sci 13(3): 548-564.
Sims JT, Johnson GV. 1991. Micronutrients soil tests. In: Mordcvedt JJ, Cox FR, Shuman LM, Welch RM. (eds.), Micronutrients in Agriculture. SSSA Book Series No. 4, Madison, WI. pp. 427-476.
Singh C, Kumar V, Prasad I, Patil VR, Rajkumar BK. 2016. Response of upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) genotypes to drought stress using drought tolerance indices. J Crop Sci Biotech 19(1): 53-59.
Sriramachandrasekharan MV, Muthukumararaja T. 2012. Evaluation of several stress indices for identification of rice genotypes with higher yield in zinc starved soil. Int J Curr Res 4(10): 80-84.
Torun A, Gültekin I, Kalayci M, Yilmaz A, Eker S, Cakmak I. 2001. Effects of zinc fertilization on grain yield and shoot concentrations of zinc, boron, and phosphorus of 25 wheat cultivars grown on a zinc-deficient and boron-toxic soil. J Plant Nutr 24(11): 1817-1829.
Vallee BL, Auld DS. 1990. Zinc coordination, function, and structure of zinc enzymes and other proteins. Biochem J 29: 5647-5659.
Vanitha J, Amudha K, Mahendran R, Srinivasan J, Robin S, Usha Kumari R. 2016. Genetic variability studies for zinc efficiency in aerobic rice. SABRAO J Breed Genet 48(4) 425-433.
Wang H, Jin JY. 2005. Photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and lipid peroxidation of maize leaves as affected by zinc deficiency. Photosynthetica 43(3): 591-596.
White PJ, Broadley MR. 2009. Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets: Iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytol 182(1): 49-84.
Wissuwa M, Ismail AM, Yanagihara S. 2006. Effects of zinc deficiency on rice growth and genetic factors contributing to tolerance. Plant Physiol 142: 731-741.
Zhao K, Wu Y. 2017. Effects of Zn deficiency and bicarbonate on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of four plant species. Plos One 12(1): e0169812.