Screen of Antioxidant Activity Leads to Recognition of High Valuable Medicinal Plants: A Case Study of Paveh and Ormanat, West of Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2 Department of Food Science Engineering, Faculty of Food Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Razi University of Kermanshah

4 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources


Recently, the beneficial effects of the plants' secondary compounds for the treatment and improvement of diseases have been strongly interested. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in the Paveh and Ormanat region of Kermanshah province. For this purpose, after studying the flora of the region, 10 high-widespread families (Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Solanaceae, Polygonaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Liliaceae, and Asteraceae) were selected. In each case, three plant species with three replications were identified and randomly collected during flowering from April to September. Antioxidant potentials of the samples were evaluated by four methods of DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and TAC. Results of analysis of variance showed significant differences between measured traits in plant species as well as plant family with 99% confidence. Among the studied plants, Pimpinella kotschyana Boiss. from Apiaceae, Bellevalia dichroa Hausskn. from Liliaceae, Muscari neglectum Guss, from Liliaceae showed the highest antioxidant activities using different methods. Results also showed that among the studied plant families, Liliaceae, Rosaceae, Brassicaceae, and Asteraceae showed considerable antioxidant potential and could be noticed in future research.


Afkar S, Zand R. 2020. Genetic relationships of some mint species using seed storage protein pattern. J Genet Resour 6: 12-19.‏
Alamholo M, Nazeri, S. 2014. Assessment of the antioxidant and antibacterial effects of stem and leaf alcoholic extracts of Dendrostellera lesserti.  J Microb World 8: 298-289.
Al-Dabbagh B, Elhaty IA, Elhaw M, Murali C, AlMansoori A, Awad B, Amin A. 2019. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). BMC Res Notes12:1-8.‏
Amiri MS, Joharchi MR. 2016. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Apiaceae family in Iran: A review. Avicenna J Phytomed 6: 621.‏
Barlow SM. 1990. Toxicological aspects of antioxidants used as food additives. In Food Antioxidants 1: 253-307.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem239: 70-76.‏
Cadenas E, Packer L. 2002. Handbook of antioxidants. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, INQ. 732 p.
Carocho M, Ferreira IC. 2013. A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives. Food Chem Toxicol 51: 15-25.‏
Davazdahemami S. 2017. Production of Medicinal Plants Basics, Botany. Talk Publishing. Iran. 215 p.
Demirezer LÖ, Kuruüzüm-Uz A, Guvenalp Z, Simon A, Patocs T. 2012. Further secondary metabolites from Pimpinella kotschyana. Planta Med 78: PI 406.‏
Dipalma AA, Di Fino LM, Salvatore SR, D’Ambrosio JM, García-Mata C, Laxalt AM. 2020. Nitro-Oleic acid triggers ROS production via NADPH oxidase activation in plants: a pharmacological approach. J Plant Physiol 246: 153128.‏
Enayati N, Ghafarzadegan R, Hajiaghaie R, Vazirian M. 2017. Comparison of different extraction methods in the extraction of Senna alexandrina Mill. J Med Plants 16: 160-167.
Faridi P, Ghasemi Y, Gholami, A, Mehregan I, Mohagheghzadeh A. 2008. Antimicrobial essential oil from Smyrniopsis aucheri. Chem Nat Compd 44: 116-118.‏
Fathi H, Mohammad SN, Shaki F. 2016. Evaluation of different extraction methods from Albizia julibrissin leaves in reducing nausea in chickens.  Complement Med J Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery 1: 1224-1233.
Fathi H, Mohammadi HR. 2016. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L. Complement. Med J Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery ‏ 6: 1-3.
Frankel EN, Meyer AS. 2000. The problems of using one dimensional methods to evaluate multifunctional food and biological antioxidants. Sci Food Agric 80: 1925-1941.‏
Ghahraman A. 2007. Color Flora Iran, 26 vols. Publications of the Institute of Forestry and Rangelands, Tehran.
Ghasemnezhad A, Bagheri Fard A, Asghari A. 2013. Study of the effect of drying temperature on some phytochemical properties of Cynara scolymus L. Eco-phytochem J Med Plants 1: 10-21.
Ghasemnezhad A, Qasemi y, Hemmati Kh, Ebrahimzadeh M, Qasemi K. 2012. Effect of type of rootstock and fruit tissue on some chemical properties of page mandarin and thampson novel orange. Plant Prod Res 19: 43-53.
Ghorbanighojdari H, Ladanmoghadam AR. 2005. An introduction to oxidative stresses and plant strains. Davavin Publishing Institute, Tehran, Iran. 128 p.
Gomes EC, Silva AN, Oliveira MRD. 2012. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the beneficial roles of exercise-induced production of reactive species. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012.
Guvenalp Z, Ozbek H, Yuzbasioglu M, Kuruuzum-Uz A, Demirezer LO. 2010. Flavonoid quantification and antioxidant activities of some Pimpinella species. Rev Anal Chem 29: 233-240.‏
Habibi H, Mazaheri D, Majnoon Hosseini N, Chaeechi MR, Bigdeli M. 2007. Effect of altitude on essential oil and components in wild thyme (Thymus kotschyanus Boiss) Taleghan region. Pajouhesh-Va-Sazandegi 19: 2-10.
Haghighat A., 2016. Investigation of antioxidant effect and determination of phenolic and flavonoid content of flowering aerial Platychaete glaucescens Boiss. and Platychaete aucheri Boiss. Doctoral thesis. Islamic Azad University of Pharmaceutical Sciences 25-25.
Halliwell B, Chirico S. 1993. Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement, and significance. Am J Clin Nutr 57: 715-725.‏
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. 2015. Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, USA.‏
Halliwell B. 2006. Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now? J Neurochem 97: 1634-1658.‏
Halliwell B. 2007. Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Biochem Soc Trans 35: 1147-1150.
Hoshidari F. 2009. Medicinal plants of Kurdistan province.  Iran J Med Aromat Plants 25: 92-103.
Hosseini S, Gharachurlou M, Ghiasitari B, Qavami M. 2013. A review of antioxidant capacity determination methods (basis of reaction, method of work, strengths and weaknesses). Food Sci Nutr 11: 89-112.
Hou DX. 2003. Potential mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanin. Curr Mol Med 3: 149-159.
Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53: 1841-1856.
Ismailzadeh R, Mehdipour SZ, Razavi R. 2017. Investigation of changes in fatty acids and properties of a "oxidant" of Actinitia deliciosa extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Food Sci Technol 14: 125-135.
Jamshidi M, Ahmadi Ashtiani HR, Rezazadeh Sh, Fathi Azad F, Mazandarani M, Khaki A. 2010. Study and comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of some native plant species in Mazandaran. J Med Plants 9: 177-183.
Kafi M, Borzui A, Salehi M, Camandi A, Masumi A, Nabati J. 2018. Physiology of Environmental stresses in plants. Jihad Press, Mashhad University, Mashhad.
Karadag A, Ozcelik B, Saner S. 2009. Review of methods to determine antioxidant capacities. Food Anal Methods 2: 41-60.‏
Karimnia A, Shabanpourshahrestani M. 2003. Evaluation of sulfur oxidation potential by heterotrophic microorganisms in different soils. Soil Water Sci 17: 68-80.
Kassa Z, Asfaw Z, Demissew S. 2020. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Sheka Zone of Southern Nations Nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine 16: 7.‏
Kaviarasan S, Naik GH, Gangabhagirathi R, Anuradha CV, Priyadarsini KI. 2007. In vitro studies on antiradical and antioxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds. Food Chem 103: 31-37.
Kedare SB, Singh RP. 2011. Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay. Int J Food Sci Technol 48: 412-422.‏
Khalili M, Ebrahimzadeh MA. 2015. A review on antioxidants and some of their common evaluation methods. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 24: 188-208.‏
Khatami M, Alijani HQ, Fakheri B, Mobasseri MM, Heydarpour M, Farahani ZK, Khan AU. 2019. Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): Greener synthesis using Stevia plant and evaluation of its antioxidant properties. J Clean Prod 208: 1171-1177.‏
Khezri Sh. 2011. Culture of medicinal plants in Kurdistan (Medicinal, Oral, Industrial). Kurdistan University Press, Sanandaj, Iran.
Khounani Z, Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha H, Nizami AS, Sulaiman A, Goli SAH, Aghbashlo M. 2020. Data on environmental analysis of natural antioxidant production from walnut husk by a solar photovoltaic-driven system as a replacement for potentially carcinogenic synthetic antioxidants. Data Brief 28: 933-104.‏
Kim DO, Lee KW, Lee HJ, Lee CY. 2002. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem 50: 3713-3717.
Kohli SK, Khanna K, Bhardwaj R, AbdAllah EF, Ahmad P, Corpas FJ. 2019. Assessment of subcellular ROS and no metabolism in higher plants: multifunctional signaling molecules. Antioxidants 8: 641.‏
Kumbhakar DV, Datta AK, Das D, Ghosh B, Pramanik A, Gupta S. 2019. Assessment of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity and cellular apoptosis in a plant based system (Nigella sativa L.; black cumin) induced by copper and cadmium sulphide nanomaterials. Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manag 11: 100196.‏
Lee SJ, Umano K, Shibamoto T, Lee KG. 2005. Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem 91: 131-137.‏
Liu C, Zhao Y, Li X, Jia J, Chen Y, Hua Z. 2014. Antioxidant capacities and main reducing substance contents in 110 fruits and vegetables eaten in China. Food and Nut. Sciences 5: 293.‏
Maghsoudi A, Abbaspur H, Ghasemipirbalouti A, Saeedisar S. 2018. An overview of the environmental impact on secondary compounds and the regulation of the expression of terpenic synthases in medicinal plants. International Conference on New Agricultural Findings 1: 4.
Maghsudlu A, Esmaeilzadeh Kenari R, Raftani Amiri Z. 2016. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of fig and pulp extracts on oxidative stability of canola oil as a synthetic antioxidant replacement. J Food Sci Tech 3: 503-516.
Mahmoudzadeh Tilami Z. 2014. Effect of some ecological factors on the quantity and quality of essential oil of Marrubium vulgare in Chahar Bagh rangelands of Golestan province. Master thesis. Gonbad Kavous University. Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 4-25.
Mohadjerani M, Naqinezhad A, Aghasizadeh Sharbaf M. 2016. Platycladus orientalis extracts with antioxidant activity from north of Iran. J Genet Resour 2: 60-66.‏
MohammadNejad Ganji SM, Moradi H, Ghanbari A, Akbarzadeh M. 2014. Investigating the effect of Altitute on the quantity and quality of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. cultivated in two regions of Mazandaran province. Echo-phytochem J Med Plants (EJMP) 5 (1): 36-42.
Moharram HA, Youssef MM. 2014. Methods for determining the antioxidant activity: A review. J Food Sci Technol 11: 31-42.‏
Mortezaeinejad F, Nowruz M. 2011. Identification and introduction of rare and endangered plants in Isfahan province. First National Conference on Health, Environment and Sustainable Development of Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch 1: 1-9.
Mozaffariyan V, Sanandaji S. 2009. Saral flora of Kurdistan. Mag. Taxo.and biosystematics 2: 59-84.
Mozaffariyan V. 1996. Culture of plants in iran. Contemporary Publications, Tehran. 740 p.
Mozaffariyan V. 2011. Recognition of Iranian Medicinal Plants. Contemporary Publications, Tehran. 1444 p.
Mozdstan Sh, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Khalili M. 2015. Comparison of the Importance of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Activity of Myrtus communis Leaf. J. Maza. Uni. of Medical Sci, 25: 10-24.
Nateghi A. 2010. Optimization of extraction of natural antioxidants from rice bran by response surface method and antioxidant activity of some edible plants of Western Iran. Master thesis. Ilam University, Faculty of Basic Sciences. Iran 14-31.
Nemati Paykani M, Jaliliyan N. 2012. Medicinal plants of Kermanshah province. J Taxo Biosystematics 4: 69-78.
Omidbaigi R. 2005. 8- Production and processing of medicinal plants. Tehran University. 348 p.
Ordonez AAL, Gomez JD, Vattuone MA. 2006. Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz extracts. Food Chem 97: 452-458.
Prakash V, Singh VP, Tripathi DK, Sharma S, Corpas FJ. 2019. Crosstalk between nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling molecules in higher plants. Environ Exp Bot 161: 41-49.‏
Pratt D, Hudson BJF. 1990. Natural antioxidants not exploited commercially. Food antioxidants. Springer, Dordrecht (pp.171-191).
Prevc T, Šegatin N, Ulrih NP, Cigić B. 2013. DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents. Talanta 109: 13-19.‏
Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. 2005. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 53: 4290-4302.‏
Rechinger KH. 2005. Flora Iranica, vol 1-176. Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt.-Graz.Austria.
Rees MD, Kennett EC, Whitelock JM, Davies MJ. 2008. Oxidative damage to extracellular matrix and its role in human pathologies. Free Radic Biol Med 44: 1973-2001.‏
SafiKhani K, Rahimi Nejad Ranjbar MR, Kolwandi R. 2006. Flouristic study and determination of biodiversity of plants of khangarms protected area in Hamedan province. Pajouhesh-Va-Sazandegi 19: 70-78.
Sarmadi BH, Ismail A. 2010. Antioxidative peptides from food proteins: A review. Peptides 31: 1949-1956.‏
Sayedi SM, RezvaniMoghadam C, KhajehHosseini M, Shahande H. 2015. The role of sulfur, vermicompost and thiobacillus on some chemical properties of calcareous soils and black phosphorus use efficiency. J Plant Physiol 22: 205-220.
Smsam Shariat S. 2007. Selection of medicinal plants. Manny Publishing. Esfahan 610 p.
Stagos D. 2020. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic plant extracts. Antioxidants 9: 19.
Suhaj M. 2006. Spice antioxidants isolation and their antiradical activity: a review. J Food Compost Anal 19: 531-537.‏
Sun L, Zhang J, Lu X, Zhang L, Zhang Y. 2011. Evaluation to the antioxidant activity of total flavonoids extract from persimmon leaves. Food Chem. Toxicol49: 2689-2696
Tabatabai J. 2015. The principles of mineral nutrition of plants. Tabriz University. Tabriz. Iran. 562 p.
Taheri A, Ghaffari M, Bagherpour NS, Ata Ron Freiman G. 2017. Study of antioxidant properties of Cystoseira trinodis extracts from Chabahar beaches. J Shahid Sadoughi Uni Medical Sci Health Services 25: 658-669.
Timurzadeh A, Ghorbani A, Kavianpour AH. 2015. Investigation of Flora, Biological Form and Choreology of Plants in the South-East Forest of Namin County in Ardabil Province. J. Plant Res 28: 265-275.
Taiz L, Zeiger E, Plant Physiology. 2002. Plant physiology, sinauer associates.‏
Wu HC, Chen HM, Shiau CY. 2003. Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel (Scomber austriasicus). Food Res Int 36: 949-957.
You L, Zhao M, Regenstein JM, Ren J. 2010. Changes in the antioxidant activity of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) protein hydrolysates during a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Food Chem 120: 810-816.‏
Zargari A. 2014. Medicinal Plants. Volume 1-5. Tehran University Press, Tehran. 4274 p.
Zengin G, Mahomoodally MF, Paksoy MY, Picot-Allain C, Glamocilja J, Sinan KI. 2019. Phytochemical characterization and bioactivities of five Apiaceae species: Natural sources for novel ingredients. Ind Crops Prod 135: 107-121.‏
Zhang L, Tian LH, Zhao JF, Song Y, Zhang CJ, Guo Y. 2009. Identification of an apoplastic protein involved in the initial phase of salt stress response in rice root by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Plant Physiol 149: 916-928.‏
Zohary M. 1973. Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East, 2 Vols. Stuttgart. 739 p.
Zulueta A, Esteve MJ, Frígola A. 2009. ORAC and TEAC assays comparison to measure the antioxidant capacity of food products. Food Chem 114: 310-316.