Antioxidant and Antibacterial Effect of Protein Hydrolysis of Yellowfin Tuna Waste on Flesh Quality Parameters of Minced Silver Carp

Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and the Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marin Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran


In this study, hydrolyzed protein as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of minced meat of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was used in a refrigerator for 12 days. Hydrolyzed protein was added to the minced meat of fish, at 0.5, 1 and 1.5% concentration. In this regard, microbial, chemical and sensory tests were carried out during the period of storage at intervals of 3 days. The results indicated that samples treated with a hydrolyzed protein of 1% and 1.5% were the best-tested groups to postpone the chemical and microbial degradation indicators and as well as the results of their sensory analysis were more acceptable. In general, the present study showed that hydrolyzed protein by a protamex enzyme from visceral of yellowfin tuna can be used as a natural preservative to increase the shelf life of the minced meat of fish.


Abdollahi M, Rezaei M, Farzi G. 2014. Influence of chitosan/clay functional bionanocomposite activated with rosemary essential oil on the shelf life of fresh silver carp. Int J Food Sci Tech 49: 811-818.

Andreu D, Rivas L. 1998. Animal antimicrobial peptides: an overview. Biopolymers 47(6): 415-33.

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis (17th Edition.). Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Behnam S, Anvari M, Rezaei M, Soltanian S, Safari, R. 2015. Effect of nisin as a biopreservative agent on quality and shelf life of vacuum packaged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stored at 4°C. J Food Sci Tech 52(4): 2184-2192.

Benjakul S, Morrissey MT. 1997. Protein hydrolysates from pacific whiting solid wastes. Food Chem 45 (9): 3423-3430.

Bernardini RD, Harnedy P, Bolton D, Kerry J, O’Neill E, Mullen AM, Hayes M. 2011. Antioxidant and antimicrobial peptidic hydrolysates from muscle protein sources and by-products-Review. Food Chem 124: 1296-1307.

Chari MG, Colagar AH. 2011. Seminal plasma lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, and cigarette smoking in asthenoteratospermic men. J Mens Health 8:43-49.

Che Man YB, Tan CP. 1999. Effects of natural and synthetic antioxidants on changes in refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein during deep-fat frying of potato chips. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76: 331.

Cumby N, Zhong Y, Naczk M, Shahidi F. 2008. Antioxidant activity and water-holding capacity of canola protein hydrolysates. Food Chem 109: 144-148.

Dong S, Zeng M, Wang D, Liu Z, Zhao Y, Yang H. 2008. Antioxidant and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Food Chem 107: 1485-1493.

Egan H, Kirk RS, Sawyer R. 1997. Pearson’s chemical analysis of food pp. 609-634 (9th ed). Longman Scientific and Technical.

Ehsani A, Jasour MS. 2012. Determination of short-term icing and frozen storage characteristics of ungutted silver carp (hypophthalmichthys molitrix). J Food Process Pres 38(2): 713-720.

Fan W, Chi Y, Zhang S. 2008. The use of a tea polyphenol dip to extend the shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) during storage in ice. Food Chem 108: 148–153.

Fathy A, Khalafalla Fatma HM, Abdel-Rahim A, Hassan HA. 2015. Quality improvement and shelf-life extension of refrigerated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets using natural herbs. Beni-Suef Uni J Bas Appli Sci 4: 33-40.

Fernández-Fernández E, Vázquez-Odériz ML, Romero-Rodríguez MA. 2002. Sensory characteristics of Galician chorizo sausage packed under vacuum and under modified atmospheres. Meat Sci. 62: 67-71.

Ghorbannejad H, Amooaghaie R. 2017. Differential changes of proline content and activities of antioxidant enzymes results in varied salt-tolerance in canola genotypes. J Genet Resour 3(1): 36-46.

He S, Franco C, Zhang W. 2013. Functions, applications and production of protein hydrolysates from fish processing co-products (FPCP). Food Res Int 50: 289-297.

Jumeri S, Kim M. 2011. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of enzymatic hydrolysates of solitary tunicate (Styela clava). Food Sci Biotechnol 20: 1075.

Kaale LD, Eikevik TM, Rustad T, Kolsaker K. 2011. Superchilling of food: A review. J Food Eng 107: 141-146.

Kobbi S, Balti R, Bougatef A, Flem GL, Firdaous L, Bigan M, Chataigné G, Chaabouni S, Dhulster P, Nedjar N. 2015. Antibacterial activity of novel peptides isolated from protein hydrolysates of RuBisCO purified from green juice alfalfa. J Func Foods 18: 703-713.

Lin H, Deng S, Zhang B, Pang J. 2013. Separation, structure identification and antimicrobial activity of ferrous chelate of protein hydrolysate in hairtail (Hrichiurus Haumela). J Smooth Muscle Res 1(1): 2-6.

Lowry R, Tinsley I. 1976. Rapid colorimetric determination of free fatty acids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 53(7): 470-472.

Martínez ML, Penci MC, Ixtaina V, Ribotta PD, Maestri D. 2013. Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of walnut oil under different storage conditions. LWT – Food Sci Technol 51: 44-50.

Mexis SF, Chouliara E, Kontominas MG. 2009. Combined effect of an oxygen absorber and oregano essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout fillets stored at 4 °C. Food Microbiol 26: 598-605.

Moroney NC, Wan AHL, Soler-Vila A, FitzGerald RD, Johnson MP, Kerry JP. 2015. Inclusion of Palmaria palmata (red seaweed) in Atlantic salmon diets: effects on the quality, shelf-life parameters and sensory properties of fresh and cooked salmon fillets. J Sci Food Agr 95(5): 897-905.

Newton KG, Gell CO. 1981. The microbiology of dark firm and dry fresh meats: a review. J Meat Sci 95: 223-232.

Ojagh SM, Rezaei M, Razavi SH, Hosseini SMH. 2010. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on the quality of refrigerated rainbow trout. Food Chem 120: 193-198.

Ozogul Y, Yuvka İ, Ucar Y, Durmus M, Kösker AR, Öz M, Ozogul F. 2016. Evaluation of effects of nanoemulsion based on herb essential oils (rosemary, laurel thyme and sage) on sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during ice storage. LWT-Food Sci Technol 75: 677-684.

Pacheco-Aguilar R, Lugo Sanchez M, Robles Burgue~no M. 2000. Postmortem biochemical and functional characteristic of Monterey sardine muscle stored at 0°C. J Food Sci 65: 40–47.

Pereira de Abreu DA, PaseiroLosada P, Maroto J, Cruz JM. 2011. Natural antioxidant active packaging film and its effect on lipid damage in frozen blue shark (Prionace glauca). Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 12: 50–55.

Pezeshk S, Ojagh SM, Alishahi A. 2015. Effect of plant antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds on the shelf-life of seafood-A Review. Czech J Food Sci 33(3): 195-203.

Pezeshk S, Rezaei M, Hosseini H. 2011. Effects of turmeric, shallot extracts, and their combination on quality characteristics of vacuum-packaged rainbow trout stored at 4 ± 1 °C. J Food Sci 76(6): 387-391.

Raeisi S, Quek SY, Ojagh SM, Alishahi AR. 2016. Effects of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed and wild mint (Mentha longifolia L.) leaf extracts on the shelf life and quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets stored at 4°C ± 1. J Food Safety 36(2): 271-281.

Remya S, Mohan CO, Venkateshwarlu G, Sivaraman GK, Ravishankar CN. 2017. Combined effect of O2 scavenger and antimicrobial film on shelf life of fresh cobia (Rachycentron canadum) fish steaks stored at 2 °C. Food Control 71: 71-78.

Rode TM, Hovda MB. 2016. High pressure processing extend the shelf life of fresh salmon, cod and mackerel. Food Control 70: 242-248.

Ryan JT., Ross RP, Bolton D, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. 2011. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish. Nutrients 3: 765-791.

Safari R, Motamedzadegan A, Ovissipour M, Regenstein JM, Gildberg A, Rasco B. 2009. Use of hydrolysates from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) heads as a complex nitrogen source for lactic acid bacteria. Food Bioproces 5(1): 73-79.

Shahidi F. 1994. Seafood processing byproducts. In F. Shahidi, & J. R. Botta (Eds.), Seafoods: chemistry, processing technology, and quality (pp. 321-334). London, England: Blackie Academic & Professional.

Shai Y. 2002. Mode of action of membrane active antimicrobial peptides. Peptide Sci 66(4): 236-248.

Shalini R, Jeya Shakila R, Jeyasekaran G, Jeevithan E. 2015. Sensory, biochemical and bacteriological properties of octopus (Cistopus indicus) stored in ice. J Food Sci Technol 52(10): 6763-6769.

Sila A, Nedjar-Arroume N, Hedhili K, Chataigné G, Balti R, Nasri M, Dhulster P, Bougatef A. 2014. Antibacterial peptides from barbel muscle protein hydrolysates: Activity against some pathogenic bacteria. LWT – Food Sci Technol 55: 183-188.

Song R, Wei R, Zhang B, Wang D. 2012. Optimization of the Antibacterial Activity of Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty) Hydrolysates. Food Bioprocess Technol 5: 1979–1989.

Takeungwongtrakul S, Benjakul S, H-kittikun A. 2012. Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Compositions and deterioration as affected by iced storage. Food Chem 134: 2066-2074.

Volpe MG, Siano F, Paolucci M, Sacco A, Sorrentino A, Malinconico M, Varricchio E. 2015. Active edible coating effectiveness in shelf-life enhancement of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60: 615-622.

Wieprecht T, Dathe M, Krause E, Beyermann M, Molloy WL, MacDonald DL. 1997. Modulation of membrane activity of amphipathic, antibacterial peptides by slight modifications of the hydrophobic moment. FEBS Letters 417: 135- 140.

Wiriyaphan C, Chitsomboon B, Yongsawadigu J. 2012. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates derived from threadfin bream surimi byproducts. Food Chem 132: 104-111.

Yanan Z, Li Z, Hua L, Wei S, Meilan Y. 2012. Effect of eel head protein hydrolysates on the denaturation of grass carp surimi during frozen storage. Procedia Eng 37: 223-228.