Activation of Lignin Biosynthetic Enzymes During Internodal Development of Aeluropus littoralis Exposed to NaCl

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

2 Department of Biology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Genetic & Agricultural Biotechnology Institue of Tabarestan (GABIT), University of Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran

Abstract

Lignin is one of the major characteristics of plant secondary cell wall that provides structural rigidity for the cells and tissues and hydrophobicity to tracheary elements. Internode tissues of Aeluropus littoralis as a halophyte grass were sampled at different developmental stages (from the first to the fifth internodes ) and under different NaCl concentrations. The influences of NaCl and internode maturity on lignin content and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were investigated. Salt stress induced the activities of PAL and CAD and increased the lignin content. Data indicated that the highest level of PAL activity was found at the first internode and CAD activity in the apical and young parts of stem was higher than the old and basal parts of it. Lignin accumulation correlated positively with PAL and CAD activities under salt stress, but during internodal maturation lignification correlated negatively with PAL and CAD activity. The results suggest that induction of PAL and CAD activities and consequently increasing of lignin deposition at internode tissues can be a strategy for high salinity tolerance in this halophyte.

Keywords


Al Qurraan AF, Sawwan JS, AL Abddallat
AM. 2012. Analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression in callus cells of hawthorn. J Food Agric Environ 10: 572- 576.

Bidlack JE, Buxton DR, Shible RM, Anderson IC. 1995. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase as a precursory enzyme of legume stem lignifi- cations. Can J Plant Sci 75: 135-140.

Boerjan W, Ralph J, Baucher M. 2003. Lignin biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54: 519-546.

Cheng H, Li L, Xu F, Cheng S, Gao F, Wang Y, Yuan H, Jiang D, Wu C. 2013. Expression patterns of a cinnamyle acohol dehydrogenase gene involved in lignin biosynthesis and environmental stress in Ginko biloba. Mol Biol Rep 40: 707-721.

Degenhardt B, Gimmler H. 2000. Cell wall adaptation to multiple environmental stresses in maize roots. J Exp Bot 51: 595-603.

Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi S, Sharifi M, Safaie N, Behmanesh M. 2012. Enhancement of lignan and phenylpropanoid compounds production by chitosan in Linum album cell culture. J Plant Biol 11: 13-26.

Ghanati F, Morita A, Yokotal H. 2002. Induction of suberin and increase of lignin content by excess boron in tobacco cells. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 48: 357-364.

Hirano K, Aya K, Kondo M, Okuno A, Morinaka Y, Matsuoka M. 2012. OsCAD2 is the major CAD gene responsible for monolignol biosynthesis in rice culm. Plant Cell Rep 31: 91–101.

Halpin C, Knight ME, Foxon GA, Campbell MM, Boudet AM, Boon JJ, Chabbert B, Tollier MT, Schuch W. 1994. Manipulation of lignin quality by downregulation of cinnamyle alcohol dehydrogenase. Plant 6: 339-350.

Li Z, Peng Y, Ma X. 2013. Different response on drought tolerance and post-drought recovery between the small-leafed and the large-leafed white clover (Trifolium repens L.) associated with antioxidant enzyme protection and lignin metabolism. Acta Physiol Plant 35: 213-222.

Luo Z, Xu X, Yan B. 2008. Accumulation of lignin and involvement of enzymes in bamboo shoot during storage. Eur Food Res Technol 226: 635-640.

Morrison TA, Kessler JR, Hatfield RD, Buxton DR. 1994. Activity of two lignin biosynthesis enzymes during development of a maize internode. J Sci Food Agr 65: 133-139.

Moura J, Bonine C, Viana J, Dornelas M, Mazzafera P. 2010. Abiotic and biotic stresses and changes in the lignin content and composition in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 52: 360-376.

Nakashima J, Awano T, Takabe K, Fujita M, Saiki H. 1997. Immunocytochemical localization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in differentiating tracheary elements derived from zinnia mesophyll cells. PCP 38: 113-123.

Pawlak-Sprada S, Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Podgorska M, Deckert J. 2011. Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals. Part I. Effects of cadmium and lead on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression, enzyme activity and lignin content.  Acta Biochim Pol 58:  211-216.

Qin J, Dong WY, He KN, Yu Y, Tan GD, Han L, Dong M, Zhang YY, Zhang D, Li AZ, Wang ZL. 2010. NaCl salinity-induced changes in water status, ion contents and photosynthetic properties of Shepherdia argentea (Pursh) Nutt. Seedlings. PSE 56: 325-332.

Santiago R, Barros- Rios J, Malvar RA. 2013. Impact of cell wall composition on maize resistance to pests and diseases. Int J Mol Sci 14: 6960-6980.

Zhang K, Qian Q, Huang Z, Wang Y, Li M, Hong L, Zeng D, Gu M, Chu Ch, Cheng Zh. 2006. Gold Hull and Internode 2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice. Plant Physiol 140: 972- 983.

Zhong R, Rippergerl A, Ye ZH. 2000. Ectopic deposition of lignin in the pith of stems of two Arabidopsis mutants. Plant Physiol 123: 59-69.

Ziaei M, Sharifi M, Behmanesh M, Razavi Kh. 2012. Gene expression and activity of phenylalanine amonialyase and essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum L. At different growth stages. IJB 10: 32-39.

Zouarie N, Bensaad R, Legavvr T, Azaza J, Sabou X, Jaoua M, Masmoudi Kh, Hassaire A. 2007. Identification and sequencing of ESTs from the halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis. Gene 404: 61-69.